Area: 11,500 sq mi (29,800 sq km) / World Rank: 141
Location: Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, in southwestern Asia; bordered on the north by Georgia, on the east by Azerbaijan, on the southwest by Azerbaijan’s Naxçivan exclave, on the south by Iran, and on the west by Turkey
Coordinates: 40°N, 45°E
Borders: 778 mi (1,254 km) / Azerbaijan 488 mi (789 km; 137 mi / 221 km of this is with the Naxçivan
enclave); Georgia 102 mi (164 km); Iran 22 mi (35km); Turkey 166 mi (268 km)
Territorial Seas: None
Highest Point: Mt. Aragats, 13,425 ft (4095 m)
Lowest Point: Debed River valley, 1,320 ft (400 m)
Longest River: Aras, 568 mi (914 km)
Largest Lake: Lake Sevan, 480 sq mi (1,244 sq km)
Natural Hazards: Earthquakes and droughts
Population: 3,336,100 (July 2001 est.) / World Rank:129
Capital City: Yerevan, located on the Hrazdan River in west-central Armenia
Largest City: Yerevan, 1,322,000 (2000 est.)
Armenia is located in the mountainous Transcaucasia region, southwest of Russia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. A small, landlocked country, Armenia’s terrain is largely that of plateaus and rugged mountainranges, with the exception of a few fertile river valleys and the area around Lake Sevan. Half of the country is above 6,090 ft (2,000 m) in elevation. The Aras River and the Debed River valleys in the far north are the lowest points, with elevations of 1,158 ft (380 m) and 1,310 ft (430 m) respectively. The Armenian Plateau was formed in a geological upheaval of earth’s crust twenty-five million years ago.The northern mountain chain began forming in the Jurassic period; the western chain dates from the Tertiaryperiod. Geological instability still causes major earthquakes in Armenia. Gyumri, the second largest city in the republic, was devastated by a massive quake that killed more than 25,000 people in December 1988. The Armenian climate ranges between subtropical and sub-temperate. The rich soils of the arable river valleys contain vineyards and orchards; the flat tablelands are primarily pastoral.
CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
Although Armenia lies not far from several seas, its high mountains block their effects and give it a continental highland climate. It has cold, dry winters and hotdusty summers. Temperature and precipitation depend greatly on elevation, with colder and wetter seasons in the high north and northeast. The widest variation in temperature between winter and summer occurs in the central Armenian Plateau, where in midwinter the mean temperature is 32° F (0°C); in midsummer the mean temperature is over 77° F (25°C). Overall, Armenia is a sunny country.
Precipitation rates depend on altitude and location, but are heaviest during autumn. In the lower Aras River valley, the average annual precipitation is 10 in (250 mm).It can reach 32 in (800 mm) in the mountains.Forests and Jungles Armenia’s natural forest land was largely cleared in the early 1990s for use as firewood.