Antigua and Barbuda
Dependency of the United Kingdom
Area: 170 sq mi (440 sq km): Antigua, 108 sq mi (280 sq km); Barbuda, 62 sq mi (161 sq km); Redonda, 5 sq mi (1.3 sq km). / World Rank: 187
Location: Part of the Leeward Islands, Caribbean Sea, (420 km) southeast of Puerto Rico, 110 mi (180 km) north of Montserrat and Guadeloupe
Coordinates: 17° 03′ N, 61° 48′ W
Borders: No international boundaries
Coastline: 95 mi (153 km)
Territorial Seas: 12 NM (exclusive economic zone: 200 NM)
Highest Point: Boggy Peak, 1,319 ft (402 m)
Lowest Point: Sea level
Longest Distances: 14 mia(22.4 km) N-Sa/ 9 mia(14.4 km) E-W
Natural Hazards: Subject to hurricanes and periodic drought
Population: 66,970 (2001 est.) / World Rank: 192
Capital City: St John’s in the northwest on the island of Antigua
Largest City: St. John’s, 24,000 (2000)
Antigua is both partly volcanic and partly coral in make-up, giving it deeply indented shores lined by shoals,reefs, and natural beaches. It is the largest of the British
Leeward Islands. Its northeastern coast is lined by many islets and its central area is a fertile plain. Barbuda is a coral island that has a large natural lagoon in the north-west. Redonda is a rocky, low-lying islet.
MOUNTAINS AND HILLS
Despite Antigua being a partly volcanic island, there have been no eruptions in recent history. The highest elevations are in the southwestern part of the island. This is where Boggy Peak (1,319 ft / 402 m), the tallest mountainon the island, is located. Neither Barbuda nor Redonda have any significant elevations.
Antigua and Barbuda lack any large rivers or lakes of significant size.
THE COAST, ISLANDS, AND THE OCEAN
Oceans and Seas
Antigua and Barbuda are located in the eastern Caribbean Sea. The open Atlantic Ocean lies to the north and east. There are many coral reefs in the vicinity of Antigua and Barbuda. The island of Guadeloupe lies to the south, on the far side of the Guadeloupe Passage from Antigua.
The Coast and Beaches
Antigua and Barbuda is famous for its beaches, estimated at 365, particularly those on Antigua itself. Themost noteworthy feature of Barbuda’s coastline is the natural lagoon on the western side of the island.
CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
Temperaturesaaveragea84°Fa(29°C)ainaJulyaanda75°F (24°C) in January, a result of the cooling trade winds from the east and northeast.
Rainfallaaverages 46aina(117acm) perayear with September at hrough November being the wettest months. The islands are subject to both the occasional summer
drought and autumn hurricanes, although the low humidity makes it one of the most temperate climates in the world.
The sandy soil on much of the islands has only scrub vegetation. Some parts of Antigua are more fertile–most notably the central plain–due to the volcanic ash in the soil. These areas support some tropical vegetation, and agricultural uses. The planting of acacia, mahogany, and red and white cedar on Antigua has led to as much as 11 percent of the land becoming forested, helping to conserve soil and water.